When I was still taking courses for my degree, I made curriculum one of my areas of emphasis. At the time, my program only had one faculty member who taught courses that were explicitly about curriculum and thus I spent almost a year and a half primarily studying under the guidance of this one professor. He was an older scholar, a relic from a time and place that no longer existed (the past really is another country). More than any other faculty I’ve encountered, he challenged me to clarify my thinking about education in this country and to try to separate the educational from the economic or the political when I thought about the curriculum. One of his least favorite developments in education in the United States was the increased role of technology in the classroom. He couldn’t see the educational value; he saw no philosophy of education behind its use. And to a certain degree he had a point. Sometimes the public conversation about technology in education takes its value and role for granted, or implicitly suggests that all that matters is that schools are “cutting edge” (in this way it’s no different than some public discussion that assumes more money is all we need to “fix” education in this country). However, he also felt that education needed to be social, and felt so strongly about the anti-social nature of computers that he threw away his family’s computer because it was preventing his youngest son from talking to family on the phone when they called. On this point, I think his age and life experiences made it harder for him to understand the direction of our current world. For better or worse, technology is a dominant form of socialization and communication now (the realm of experience is shifting and if education is supposed to be experiential than it is time to embrace technology), and it is changing everything about our culture (much to the chagrin of some members of older generations).
The Chronicle of Higher Education recently featured two pieces on online learning that warrant attention. The first is a commentary article by Kevin Carey about the development of a mostly free online university called The University of the People, and the second a blog post by Frank Donoghue addressing his resistance to online learning institutions despite their growth and stability (they aren’t going anywhere anytime soon).
The development of an online university that is basically cost free for students (using internet social media and open source technologies, and curriculum created by volunteers) sounds great, but I think expansion of these kinds of institutions will not meet widespread support amongst faculty. Yes, providing education to low income students is great and most faculty would have little problem with that. However, many faculty still have reservations about curricular programs that only use technology (see Donoghue’s blog for just one example) because they either don’t seem to grasp how technological the younger generations really are or think it is one of the four signs of the apocalypse. Ialso think many would resent an institutional model that is dependent on faculty offering their expertise for no compensation. Large amounts of Ph.Ds in many fields are already diluting the distinction of scholarly expertise to a point where tenure may disappear because it is easy and cheap to find academic labor willing to work on short-term contracts. Widespread volunteerism could exacerbate this problem.
In two previous posts in this series, I focused on strategies related to reading and writing that graduate students could use over the summer to improve their graduate school experience and prepare for the future. While the reading strategies could benefit any graduate student, many of the writing strategies were more geared toward graduate students with a specific desire to pursue research, publications, and the development of status within their academic fields. I recognize that many graduate students may not be interested in academic writing outside of the requirements of their program, and today I am focusing on other things graduate students can do over the summer to advance their professional development.
Stay Engaged. This is as much a mindset as it is an action, but I have found it to be a key to my development throughout my grad school career. To be sure, most of the strategies I have talked about throughout this series of posts as well as those that I am about to mention are the product of staying engaged over the summer. Yet, staying engaged is also about mundane things such as checking your school email regularly. You never know what sorts of important information might be sent to you over the summer. Checking my email during the summer months helped me land a position as a graduate student researcher that has given me many opportunities to conduct, present, and publish research. I still had to interview to get the position, but if I had been completely checked out that summer I would not have gotten the email that led to the interview. Throughout my time in my doctoral program, I have seen several employment opportunities solicited via email during the summer. So, as tempting as it is to stop checking that school email completely, it might be in your best interests to check in on it throughout the summer.
Maintain your academic relationships. Staying engaged can also be as simple as maintaining relationships with your advisor, other faculty you have taken courses from, your peers in your graduate program as well as those you might have met from other programs at academic conferences or similar events. While the graduate degree you are earning will have only your name on it, working through any graduate program is made exponentially easier by the help of other people (particularly if you are in a doctoral program). Developing and maintaining strong, supportive, and reciprocal relationships with other graduate students in your program or discipline is invaluable once you get to the exams and thesis or dissertation stages (more on this in a later post). And of course, working through the master’s thesis or doctoral dissertation is significantly easier if you can communicate openly with your faculty advisor. So send emails, make phone calls, and have chats over lunch or coffee.
Teach or Volunteer. Teaching a college course and volunteering are two other ways of developing experiences and skills related to your chosen field during the summer. Every program is different, but if you want to teach over the summer chances are you need to apply some time in the winter or spring (but do check that email, you never know what last minute instructor changes might be made because of illness or schedule conflicts that could lead to a potential last minute employment opportunity). Even if you do not plan to enter the academic world after you get your degree, teaching can be valuable. Much like the reading strategies, teaching can provide an opportunity to gain mastery over your field and it may therefore help you down the road when you get the exam stage of the program (and you can make money too, which is always good). While teaching may be more of an option for those in a doctoral program, anyone can volunteer. Volunteering can help you explore the types of jobs that are available in your field and can help you establish valuable social contacts that may be valuable after you graduate. Teaching and volunteering are also two activities that would be good to put on your CV…
Develop your CV. I don’t think it is ever too early to start crafting and re-shaping your curriculum vitae (or vita or résumé or whatever you or your field prefer to call it). In fact, I personally think it should be a constant activity for any graduate student, but the summer offers a good break from other obligations to catch up and add recent activities, positions and experiences to your CV (as well as those things that you know you will be doing in the not too distant future). You never know when a job opportunity might arise that will require you to submit a CV, so it is a good idea to take the summer to update it if you have been neglecting it. The summer also offers a good chance to play around with new CV layouts and formats.
Clarify your goals. If nothing else, the summer offers a good time to reflect on why you are pursuing your graduate degree. Considering and clarifying your goals related to your graduate education can help you make better decisions on how to use the rest of your summer and will help you prioritize your obligations as you advance through the program. If your career goal is to teach in higher education, than you might favor teaching during the summer and school year over developing your own research projects. If you want to eventually take a job in industry, you might take the summer to explore industry opportunities instead of teaching or developing term papers into conference papers. Ultimately, you have a large role in what you get out of your graduate education and clarifying for yourself why you are in grad school can help communicate your needs to your faculty and peers, and it can save you a lot of time, energy, and work in the long run.
The summer can be a useful time for all graduate students. Whether you decide to read, write, or engage in other activities related to your development as a scholar or community leader, making the most of your “time off” can make your life a lot easier as you advance in the program and get closer to entering the workforce.
Earlier Posts in this series:
In Part II I shared some strategies for reading over the summer that have worked for me at various stages of my graduate program. Reading over the summer is a great way to increase your knowledge of your field and to get ahead start on program requirements that are looming ahead in the coming academic year. However, reading is not the only activity that graduate students can engage in over the summer that can make their immediate and long-term futures more promising. Today I am going to discuss how graduate students can use the summer to write.
Throughout the academic year, graduate students engage in many activities or encounter ideas that can potentially lead to summer writing projects. Here are a few strategies that I have used in the past to advance my academic livelihood by devoting significant portions of my summer to writing.
The Term-Paper Transformation. In my post on reading I talked about identifying areas of interest that you did not have the opportunity to pursue in detail in your coursework and devote time to reading them over the summer. This strategy is sort of the opposite. Reflect back on the past year of coursework and the research or scholarly projects that you completed as term-papers for your courses. Do any of them stand out? If you find yourself still thinking about a term-paper topic a great deal or if you did particularly well on one of them it is a good idea to take the summer to transform the paper. If you are a younger student, you might begin by meeting with the professor for that course to talk about ways to improve the paper and proceed from there. For more advanced graduate students, I recommend thinking about old term papers as potential future conference papers and, eventually, publications. Conference papers are a nice transitional stage between the term paper stage and the publication stage, and it is never too early to start thinking about presenting at conferences (I will address the issue of conferences in more detail in later posts). Regardless of your goal, however, the important point here is to continue developing promising projects that you began as term papers. Doing this can help advance your thinking, lead you toward potential thesis or dissertation topics, and foster your professional development by introducing you to the process of maturing research or scholarly paper projects. At the beginning, you may need more direct guidance from the faculty in your program, but as you mature as a graduate student you will begin to get a feel for what a term paper needs to transform it into a conference paper.
Controlling the Conference Carousel. Academic conferences occur throughout the year, and the deadlines for proposals to present at them are generally 6-9 months before the conference date. This means that if you are trying to stay active and involved in your field (and that’s never a bad idea) you will likely have both conference proposals and papers at different stages at any given time. The summer is a good time to get control of this conference carousel (or at least get caught up). If you proposed to present at a conference that occurs in the fall, you will likely hear if your paper was accepted by the early to middle portion of the summer. If you were accepted, the summer is the time to write and edit the conference paper (not the fall quarter right before the conference). At the same time, if you’d like to present at a conference that is scheduled for the winter or fall, your proposal would likely be due over the summer, and you would want to save time for that. The conference carousel gets even more intense if you are also developing proposals and papers for your research group as part of a graduate student researcher/research assistant position, and in these cases making the most of the summer is invaluable. The bottom line is that you don’t want to be trying to cram for academic conferences during the academic year. It is unnecessary stress and graduate students already have enough.
Pushing for Publications. Another possible focus of your energy over the summer is developing a conference paper or other serious project into a publication. Here, just as in the term-paper transition strategy, you would want to procure feedback about your work (and a conference is a great place to hear what other people think) and then consider how you want to respond to that feedback. Not all feedback from conference chairs, discussants, panelists, or other colleagues needs to be addressed, but it is always a good idea to pay special attention to their remarks because if you intend to submit your work to a journal it would be sent to experts in your field. I find it best to plan for and pursue several rounds of this feedback-reflection-editing cycle before even considering submission somewhere (hopefully using the various faculty in your program). I find it easier to focus on such a large task during the summer, when I have fewer obligations to the graduate program and the university.
Obviously, these are not the only ways to utilize writing over the summer, but, outside of developing thesis or dissertation-related work, I think these three strategies are the best ways to advance your work while also making your life during the coming academic year easier. The less you have to worry about developing side research projects, conference proposals and papers, or publishing your work during the “school” year, the more you will be able to devote your energies to successfully completing your coursework or other program requirements. And if you can do all that, while still increasing your research and presentation experiences, all the better. Spending some time to write today with your eye on tomorrow is never a bad idea.
Earlier Posts in this series:
I recently came across a blog post by Larry Cuban that I wanted to pass on. In an age when public discourse about education is overwhelmed by perspectives that oversimplify or undervalue teaching, it is always refreshing to come across a discussion that acknowledges its complexity. Check out more of Larry Cuban’s blog here. Happy Friday!
Here is a post from the Brainstorm blog at The Chronicle of Higher Education on a study that found there were some redeeming aspects of lecturing. I am all for interactive classrooms and giving students agency in their learning experience, but, like many teaching techniques, it needs to be done well to be effective. I took plenty of classes in grad school from professors who seldom lectured and my experiences were often underwhelming. In most cases, I just wanted to hear the professor offer his or her opinion on a topic from time to time and when that didn’t happen I lost interest in what we were doing. Plus, left unguided by a professor’s expertise, students of all ages can occasionally lead each other into misunderstandings of course materials (I’ve been in a few classes like this as well). The whole students-teaching-students thing only works if all the students are doing the readings for a course, which, even in grad-level courses, is not something you can assume is happening. So, here’s hoping for the return of the lecture (at least some of the time).
What do you think? Should the lecture make a return?
In part I, I discussed three strategies that graduate students can use to clear their minds, recharge their batteries, and wrap-up the previous academic year. In my next few posts on grad school, I will discuss strategies that graduate students of all levels can use to make their lives easier in the next academic year. Today the topic is reading with purpose.
Reading over the summer is one of the more obvious pieces of advice that professors or senior graduate students can offer to any graduate student. After all, in the academic world, reading can never hurt you and the summer is a good time to get ahead or catch up. You might finish reading something you only read a portion of in one of your courses the previous year, catch up on the latest volumes of the key journals in your field, or simply explore scholarship in which you are interested in a whimsical fashion. Those are all potentially useful ways to spend time over the summer. However, I think that reading with purpose can make your summer more productive and valuable to your future studies.
When I say reading with purpose, I mean reading with a pointed, well-developed plan to organize and frame what you read within the constraints of a particular goal. Here are a few examples:
Reading for exams. Nearly all graduate programs have some sort of examination process designed to assess how well graduate students have mastered their particular field of scholarship. In some programs, the exams are based solely on the courses you have taken, but in others you may be responsible for material not necessarily addressed in specific courses. In some cases, particularly in fields like history, there are often formal reading lists available to graduate students to help them prepare for these exams. In other fields, these lists might be more informal and you might have to ask the faculty (or perhaps senior graduate students) to help you develop something. Regardless of form, the guiding idea here is to compile a list of the most important pieces of scholarship to your area of interest, and devote serious time and effort toward studying those works over the summer. While students at all stages of coursework can benefit from this strategy, it may be most useful to those who are beginning to see their exams on the horizon.
Creating a summer “course.” This example is similar to the previous, but is more flexible and specific, and may be more useful to students who still have time to explore or who are still looking for their thesis or dissertation topic. As you take more and more courses in your fields, you might come across a specific topic that really interests you but never had the chance to pursue because of the specific focus of your courses or time constraints. Maybe you stumbled upon a school of researchers or theorists that keep getting cited in what you read but you have never read their work or still don’t understand what they are about. The summer offers a good chance to pursue these topics. I used this strategy after my second year of coursework. Throughout my second year of study, post-modernism and post-structuralism appeared tangentially in the majority of what I was reading. I had never had the chance to read them, knew I was probably not going to have the chance to take a course that would offer any extensive treatment of them, and I wanted to be more conversant about those topics. So I did a little digging, came up with a “syllabus” to guide me through my planned readings, and dragooned a couple of colleagues to join me. It was an interesting summer.
Reading for your thesis/dissertation. By the latter portion of a graduate program, the purpose portion of reading with purpose tends to take care of itself, as your research project idea will define the area(s) of scholarship you will be pursuing. Of course, if you are a PhD student, by the time you get to this stage in the program the differences between summer and the academic year are far less marked and meaningful. Nonetheless, if you are developing a dissertation proposal or already working on your dissertation, the summer is still an important time. Dissertation grant or fellowship application deadlines are often in the fall and the more you can read to develop ideas for those proposals over the summer the easier developing those proposals will be and the earlier you can send them to professors and colleagues for feedback.
So while reading in general may be a good idea, reading with purpose can provide focus to your productivity over the summer. It can help you broaden your mastery of your field, discover new areas of interest, or prepare for your program’s comprehensive examinations. A little hard work over the summer can make your experience in the next academic year more meaningful and less stressful.
Of course, there will be some students who find themselves well-read, with plenty of burgeoning research interests, and may find their summer best spent writing. In the next blog post on summer strategies, I will offer advice on writing over the summer.
Happy reading. 🙂
Couldn’t help but pass this on. See the news story where I stumbled across this video here. This is a good example of how context alters the course of linguistic exchanges, and how education can’t get you everything. 😉 Enjoy the weekend!
Summer’s here, and as a grad student it’s a welcome break. From August or September until May or June the day-to-day grind of graduate school is mentally and physically draining. Many of us have to balance our course load with the demands of being a TA, a research assistant, or, in some cases, full-time employment outside of the university setting, and the grind only intensifies for students who actively attend conferences in their field or develop personal research projects on their own as well as those who are married, in serious relationships, or have families and friendships to maintain. By the time spring comes around, many of us hit the “trying to get through the rest of the term” phase of the year and we anxiously yearn for the freedom of summer.
However, summer can be an incredibly important and useful time for graduate students if it is used wisely. Based on my experiences, here are three important steps towards beginning a relaxing, rejuvenating, and productive summer.
Take a break. While I think being productive over the summer is important and worthy of consideration, whatever progress you make towards those ends will be negated if you don’t give yourself time to recover from the academic year. I recommend taking the first few weeks of summer for yourself (and I found this to be particularly important when I was still taking coursework. Once you advance to candidacy or are in a phase where your schedule is less structured it might not be as crucial). Read a book that has nothing to do with your scholarly interests. Go to the beach or the mountains. Get a massage. Take in a marathon of your favorite TV show. Spend time with your family (chances are they have only seen the academic zombie version of yourself for the last few months). The point is to lose yourself in something that can give your brain a rest because you’ve been using it nearly non-stop for 9 months.
Get healthy. This goes hand in hand with taking a break. Many graduate students will crash at the end of the year as their adrenaline dissipates and the impact of long periods of exhaustion and prolonged pressure take their toll on the body. It’s happened to me, and many of my peers. In addition to resting, you might consider devoting more time to exercise. Taking care of the body is another important way of to take care of and clear your mind, and the summer offers more time for those of us who may have let our health-related habits deteriorate over the course of the academic year.
Tie up loose ends. Once you have rested, or perhaps in the midst of rest, it is a good idea to tie up any loose ends. When I was working through the coursework phase of my doctoral program, I liked to take time after every term to clear out my binders and notepads and file away course materials and readings. Keep what you might use later, but don’t keep everything. I generally kept the course syllabus, whatever readings I might have printed out for the course, and a copy of the term paper I wrote for the class (if there was one), and little else. There are only so many filing cabinets you can have before you start crossing the line into the academic hoarder territory, and the sooner you develop an efficient and selective system for what you keep and how you store it, the better. Regardless of what system you use, going through all of your “stuff” from the recently finished quarter or semester can be a valuable and effective way to clear your mind of what you might call “academic clutter,” and, if it was a particularly daunting term, it can have a therapeutic affect as well. Sometimes it is nice to throw out a copy of that term paper that
haunted your dreams took way too long to write only a few weeks before. If nothing else, it might be somewhat satisfying to look back at the year and realize how much you actually did accomplish.
Taking some time to rest, relax, and recover from the last academic year is an important first step toward making the most of your summers. Once you’ve taken care of yourself and cleared your mind, it’s a good idea to start looking ahead, and part II of this post will address the many different things graduate students at different stages can do over the summer to maximize their graduate education. Until then, enjoy your rest. 🙂